Many herbs and spices used in Thai cuisine have beneficial medicinal properties. Here are some examples: CHILI: "Phrik" in Thai. Chili is an erect, branched, shrub-like herb with fruits used as garnishing and flavouring in Thai dishes. There are many different species. All contain capsaicin, a biologically active ingredient beneficial to the respiratory system, blood pressure and heart. Other therapeutic uses include being a stomachic, carminative and anti-flatulence agent, and digestive. CUMIN: (Cummin, Zeera): "Yi-ra" in Thai. Cumin is a small shrubbery herb, the fruit of which contains 2 to 4 % volatile oil with a pungent odour, and which is used as a flavouring and condiment. Cumin's therapeutic properties manifest as a stomachic, bitter tonic, carminative, stimulant and astringent. GARLIC: "Kra-thiam" in Thai. Garlic is an annual herbaceous plant with underground bulbs comprising several cloves. Dried mature bulbs are used as a flavouring and condiment in Thai cuisine. The bulbs contain 0.1 to 0.36 % garlic oil and organic sulfur compounds. Therapeutic uses are as antimicrobial, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, anti-flatulence and cholesterol lowering agents. GINGER: "Khing" in Thai. Ginger is an erect plant with thickened, fleshy and aromatic rhizomes. Used in different forms as a food, flavouring and spice, Ginger rhizomes contain 1 to 2 % volatile oil. Ginger's therapeutic uses are as a carminative, anti-nausea and anti-flatulence agent. GREATER GALANGA (False Galangal, Galangal) "Kha" in Thai. Greater Galanga is an erect annual plant with aromatic, ginger-like rhizomes, and commonly used in Thai cooking as a flavouring. The approximately 0.04 volatile oil content has therapeutic uses as carminative, stomachic, anti-rheumatic and antimicrobial agents. HOARY BASIL: "Maeng-lak" in Thai. Hoary Basil is an annual herbaceous plant with slightly hairy and pale green leaves, eaten either raw or used as flavouring, and containing approximately 0.7 % volatile oil. Therapeutic benefits include the alleviation of cough symptoms, and as diaphoretic and carminative agents. KAFFIR LIME: (Leech Lime, Mauritus Papeda and Porcupine Orange) "Ma-krut" in Thai. The leaves, peel and juice of the Kaffir Lime are used as flavouring in Thai cuisine. The leaves and peel contain volatile oil. The major therapeutic benefit of the juice is as an appetizer. "KRA-CHAI" in Thai: (No Common English Name) This erect annual plant with aromatic rhizomes and yellow-brown roots is used as flavouring. The rhizomes contain approximately 0.8 % volatile oil. The plant has stomach ache relieving and antimicrobial properties and therapeutic benefits as an antitussive and anti-flatulence agent.