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Heritage History Discovery
Decapitating Demons May Be the  Oldest Fearsome Entities of Ancient Egypt

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According to Discovery News, a researcher from Belgium has discovered the oldest depictions of demons in ancient Egypt, showing that demonic entities populated the ancient Egyptians’ imaginations as far back as 4,000 years ago. The fearsome entities of the past were believed to have gripped their victims and cut off their heads. During the International Conference on Ancient Egyptian Demonology at Swansea University, U.K., the oldest depiction of ancient Egyptian demons was presented. Wael Sherbiny, a Belgium-based Egyptologist, and independent scholar who specializes in the religious texts of Ancient Egypt made the discovery. During his research, he found two demons on two Middle
Kingdom coffins that were about 4,000 years old. Another one was portrayed in a 4,000-year-old leather roll the researcher had previously discovered on the shelves of the Egyptian museum in Cairo. The roll was stored and forgotten for at least 70 years. The oldest and longest Egyptian leather manuscript had been untouched by other researchers for decades.

Wael Sherbiny wrote in his abstract for the conference:
''During my intensive research on the composition of the so-called Book of Two Ways which has been going on for the past seventeen years, I discovered, to my surprise, a large number of iconographic details in the supposedly-published material that were simply skipped by the Coffin Texts editors. These include inter alia a number of new pictorial renderings of various supernatural entities. In my paper a brief reference will be made to images of the supernatural entities I discovered on the oldest surviving leather roll from Ancient Egypt (2300-2000 B.C.), the discovery of which I announced in the last International Congress of Egyptologists in Florence. The three demons are not unknown creatures to scholars studying ancient Egyptian texts. The first two demons were called In-tep and Chery-benut. The first of them was pictured as a dog-like baboon. The second was an unspecified figure with a human head. The name In-tep, may be related to the demon’s practice of severing heads as a punishment for any unwelcome person who intruded in a sacred space. These beings appeared as guardians at the entrance of a building, such as a temple, which contained several chambers guarded by other demonic entities as well. The third demon was called Ikenty, and he was believed to be a guardian of a fiery gate that led to a restricted area concealing a divine image.
The text analyzed by Sherbiny was connected with the moon god Thoth and the bark of the sun god. The drawings show the demons in either a purely zoomorphic or anthropomorphic representation. All of the demons were already known from texts connected with different periods in ancient history. The first two were presented on polychrome drawings from the New Kingdom Period (c. 3,500 years ago), but Ikenty is also known from a Middle Kingdom (1870-1830 BC) coffin.

Sources: www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/decapitating-demons-may-be-oldest -fearsome-entities-ancient-egypt, news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/oldest-depiction-of-ancient -egyptian-demons-found-160419.htm